The origins of Calamecca find their roots in ancient times, perhaps Etruscan. In effect, its name could derive from Kalanike, the Etruscan divinity; or from the Greek adjective Kalos, which means beautiful, and from the Etruscan name Mexl, which means people, thus indicating a place inhabited by a beautiful people; it could also derive from the family of stonemasons, the Calamechs, who arrived from Yugoslavia and then reached Carrara, where they became famous marble sculptors.

The castle of Calamecca has played an important role in the medieval history of the Pistoia area.
The first historical sources geographically naming Calamecca date back to 776, and are contained in a document concerning the purchase of land with houses by a noble of Longobard origin, Winifredo of Willerado. From the mid-eleventh century, Calamecca becomes an important stop on ancient roads, being well connected by a network of roads secondary to the main road connecting the valleys of Pescia, Pistoia, Serravalle Pistoiese, Femminamorta, Casa di Monte, Piteglio, and Prunetta. In 1182, due to the obstinate indiscipline of its inhabitants towards the central authority of Pistoia, the fortified castle of Calamecca was razed to the ground by the Pistoia armies after a long siege (only in 1332 was the fortress rebuilt by Pistoia). In 1290, Calamecca and Lanciole, both controlled by the Ghibelline faction, were conquered by the Guelphs of Spino da Trivulzio de’ Panciatichi, whose stronghold was in the Guelph village of Crespole. In 1335, the castle of Calamecca came under the control of the Florentines.